Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Why Sony Failed?

Why Sony fail? When I read â€Å"Leading Change Why Transformation Efforts Fail†, I directly linked Sony with the transformation fail. Sony, the previous electrical giant, announced a record annual net loss of $6. 4 billion for fiscal year 2011 in May 22 2012. This marks the fourth consecutive year that Sony reported substantial losses. Transformation efforts couldn’t turnaround the bad situation of Sony due to the mistakes that made by Sony in those transformation.First, Sony did not establishing a great enough sense of urgency. Sony began its diversification strategy in 1980s. By 1990’s, Sony shaped game, electric, picture, and finance four main businesses. By that time, some potential crisis began to emerge. However, all of these risks were hidden by excellent annual reports. Even when Sony confronted â€Å"Sony Shock† in 2003, leaders of Sony couldn’t realize its development dilemma and prepare to transform.Until 2005, continued losses pushed So ny to review its strategy and re-appointed Sir Howard Stringer as CEO. Sony had lost a lot of opportunities, such as LCD TV. Post core business of Sony, electrical manufacture, Second, Sony lacked a clear version. As a high technological company, innovation decided the fate of Sony. However, Sony made a fetish of its brand recognition and marketing power, and ignored the importance of innovation. The last great innovation of Sony is CD, which was launched in 1982.Even when Sony reintroduced innovation as its basic strategy, there was no direct process to commit the strategy, and the strategy just became an empty slogan. Even today, Sony cannot have a leading technology in its areas. Now, Sony appointed a new CEO, who emphasized the importance of innovation for Sony. There isn’t enough time left to the new CEO, and maybe Sony will die in future several years. Hiroko Tabuchi First Published: Mon, Apr 16 2012. 06 26 PM IST How Sony failed to keep up with the tech revolution

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Five methods of Departmentalization Essay

Essay Topic â€Å"What five methods have traditionally been used to departmentalize work and worker? Give one advantage and one disadvantage of each. Provide an example of functional departmentalization at your University and using the definitions in your textbook explain why it is suitable example. (Chapter 9)† In any size of the organization or complexity workplace, organizational structures are very important factors that the businesses must have, so the employee will know their position, their responsibilities and tasks. To develop and improve organization performance, the organization can use various structural can take on, however the organization need to find the best organisational structure that depends on many factors including the work, products or services, the size of the employee, geographic and target market (demographic customer’s base). The following section provides details of the five methods have traditionally been used to departmentalize employee and jobs, also advantage and disadvantage each of the methods. Traditional organizational structures are connections among these positions are demonstrated in an organisational Chart which will show how management is organized ‘vertical and horizontal configuration of departments, authority and job within a companyà ¢â‚¬â„¢ (Williams & McWilliams 2010, p.175) each of department has a manager, who runs day- to- day operations and ultimately report to the CEO, however this traditional model is common use in all church, government and military organization, because these organizations are stable, cannot respond to change and slow to act. For example every soldiers answer to his commanding officer, while the president is at the top of the chain as command-in-chief. Departmentalization is ‘the subdivision of work is the basic meaning of â€Å"forms†. The multidivisional form is defined as decentralized management structure; organized into products divisions, each division containing a unitary structure; and a central office to make to strategic decisions.’ (P. James L. 1997) generally the basic decisions that managers have to make as they develop a traditional organizational structure are using the five traditional methods of functional, product, customer, geographic and matrix departmentalization. Which mean two or more people working together as a group to complete a specific task, by divided the group to work in different departmentalization, to help achieve the  organization objectives and goals. However ‘Determining the functions to be performed involves consideration of division of labour,’ (P. Montanna &B. Charnov, 1993, p. 1) and depending on the size of the grouping that managers supervise. The degree of decision-making authority is centralization and usually were made by the top management of the highest vertically structures hierarchy. This section is additional detail and description of five methods has been used traditionally to departmentalization. Functional departmentalization: group of employee and job based on work performance, example finance and accounting, marketing and sale, human resource and administration and technical and operating. For another example of Functional departmentalization at Victoria University is Academic Support and Development because this department can students with University assessment tasks such as writing skills, reference skills, online language translator and providing expert support the student academic success and retention across the university. The advantage of functional departmentalization is efficiency of work and is to be done by specialist skills and high qualified. The disadvantage is inflexibility of work because the stuff only is qualifies for one specialisation. Products departmentalization: group of employee and work for producing major product or services area in the organization or company. Example David Jones, women’s clothing, men’s clothing, home and food. The advantage of the product departmentalization is that increases accountability for product performance and allow manager and employee work in one area of expertise. The disadvantage is the challenge of coordinating across different product departments. Customer departmentalization: group of employee and work into particular responsibility based on customer’s problem and need. Example: government, education, health, wholesale or retail. The advantage is focused on customer need rather than on products or business function. The disadvantage customer departmentalization is the satisfaction or feedback from customer is challenging of coordinating across different customer departments. Geographic Departmentalization: groups of employee and work ‘into separate units responsible for doing business in particular geographic area’ (Williams & McWilliams 2010, p.180). Example North, South, West, East). The advantage of geographic departmentalization is face to face communication between the service provider and service receiver. The  disadvantage is required more human capital and the control cannot exercise effectively. Matrix departmentalization: a combined of one or two group form of departmentalization are used together based on particular project, most often are from product and functional departmentalization working together. The advantage of matrix departmentalization is allowing the organization to efficiently manage large, complex tasks and efficiency avoiding duplication. The disadvantage is requires a high level of management skill and can cause of conflict between bosses in departments. Through a different perspective on the issue can be seen by comparing between traditional model and modern model of the organizational structures, the traditional of organizational structures is illustrated as have effectiveness and efficiency of products or services more than modern organizational structures. Because of emphasis on job specialization, highly performed on definite procedures and policy in the organization that effective work and worker, also the decentralization ‘is the location of most authority at the upper levels of the organization. In a centralized organization, manager makes the most decision, even the relatively small one’ (Williams & McWilliams 2010, p.185) which help and improve the organization achieve their objectives and goals are better and quicker than apply on modern organizational structures. For the modern or twentieth c entury organizational structures is redesigning of making objective and goals setting process is through empower worker. According to(Williams & McWilliams 2010, p.185) Empower worker means’ permanently passing decision –making authority and responsibility from managers to workers by giving them the information and resources they need to make and carry out good decisions’. Which means all the process need to be share to every levels and decentralized authority is allowing a significant amount of worker within the organization make the decision necessary to solve the problem. In conclusion the traditional organizational structures has five methods been used to departmentalizing work and workers such as the work Functional performs, the Product or Service offered, the target Customer or client, the Geographic region covered and the Matrix project that is combine or form two or more departmentalization to work together. These methods are used to in organization which effect work and worker with the best contribute to accomplishment organization’s objectives and goals. Reference list Brews. P.J & Tucci. C. L, 2004, ‘exploring the structural effect of internetworking’, strategic management journal, vol. 25. No. 5, pp. 429-451 Woll .L.F.K & Moliance. M, 2013’do organizational structure, ‘work environment and gender matter?’ creatively and implementations of new ideas, international journal of gender and entrepreneurship, vol. 5. No.3. pp. 298-315 Dufty.N, 1996, ‘ a note on departmentalization in an institute of technology’, journal of education administration, vol. 4. No. 1, pp. 32-48 Williams. C & McWilliams. A, 2010, MGMT 1st Asian Pacific Edition, Cengage Learning Australia Pty, South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Price. L. J, 1997, ‘handbook of organization measurement’, international journal of Manpower, vol. 18 Iss 4/5/6 pp.305-558 P. Montanna & B. Charnov, 1993, ‘chapter 11: organizational structures: concepts and formats’, management: A streamlined course for students & business people . (Hauppauge, New York: Barron’s Business Reviewed Series), pp. 155-169

Monday, July 29, 2019

The Scene book Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The Scene book - Essay Example Nevertheless, redemption desires emerge in Gaitskill’s protagonist while sex desires are seen as a theme in the Dybek’s protagonist characters. However, combining the two stories as a single unit through creative and critical analysis, negotiation technique is acknowledged as a driving pulse for both stories, even though, the end goals of the characters used by the authors are different (Williford & Martone, P. 232). On a broad front, Dybek’s story creates a visual scene of a first sexual encounter with a teenage boy to build tension as a stirring need to his sexual fulfillment desire. Anxiety is manifested through systematic memories of the teenage boy first sexual encounter. However, pressure remained as a central focus of the story by the arrival of the police investigating the dead of a young pregnant girl although the impulse was significantly changing. Conversely, negotiation appears in twofold generating both arguments and disagreements independently. For the first scenario, a boy and a girl negotiation perspective is used to demonstrate negotiation technique in action while in the second case, negotiation is seen as an internal debate that point out the protagonist anticipation of unfulfilled sexual desires. In simple terms, negotiation technique demonstrates a shifted tension from uncontrolled desire to an acceptance of a situation that Sandra Scofield calls ‘’peaceà ¢â‚¬â„¢Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ regarded as a sign of the end of a conflict (Williford & Martone, P. 189). In comparison, Gait Skill’s story (â€Å"Tiny, Smiling Daddy†) illustrate a shift of pulse and conflict through the character’s anxiety of her daughter’s self-magazine article contents that touches the main character. However, the interactive negotiation reveals the character’s overall unhappiness and his personal relationship from an immediate conflicting event to internal conflicting

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Critical Thinking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 18

Critical Thinking - Essay Example Much of the corporate wealth in the region is in government hands. Earlier this year, the company won the auction for former GE Plastics with $11 billion, and it has significantly expanded its U.S. operations. In addition to that, it has acquired the U.K.’s Huntsman Petrochemicals Company last year. The company is currently investing about $20 billion annually in expanding capacity (Al†Salamah & Wilson, 2001). I chose SABIC because it has values that include inspiring employees by empowering them with clear and shared comprehension of the ethical boundaries that they must operate. More so, Engage diverse workforce by ensuring that they maintain respectful and welcoming work environment. In addition, it helps create a sustainable compliance with integrity framework. That is, it will support innovation in products in a highly regulated world. Thus, finally delivering growth by earning the trust of employees, customer and business collaborates and ensure that they always conduct business with a lot of integrity (Jasinska-Walc et al., 2015). One can describe the advantages of SABIC basing on the geographical environment. In addition to that, the countries’ regulatory framework of government in which SABIC operates their business, the political set up of the countries that SABIC have their manufacturing plants. Moreover, the taxation rules, regulations and policies of the countries, and finally the production and transportation costs. Cultural issues: cultures of different countries vary and can bring impact on the company accordingly. There are Promotional messages sent to the consumers who are responsible for the purchase decision, also the marketing message highly depends on cultural background of the user. Therefore, cultural awareness is essential when designing marketing strategies for the global markets. The views of the user are always in consideration (Jasinska-Walc et al., 2015). SABIC has used marketing strategies of the firms to learn more

Saturday, July 27, 2019

General Principles of Law. The Law of Contract Essay

General Principles of Law. The Law of Contract - Essay Example In the contract law, mistakes are classified as non est factum, unilateral and bilateral. Non est factum relates to written contracts, where a party to the contract, claims that the contract document is not the document that it had signed. Mistakes constitute a very difficult and complicated area of the law of contract and relate to the time of formation of the contract. There are two types of mistakes, agreement mistakes take place when either the parties are at cross purposes or one party is mistaken and this is known to the other party. In Smith v. Hughes, 1871, the plaintiff sold oats to the defendant who believed, mistakenly, that these were old. The court upheld the defendant's decision not to accept these oats. The other type of mistake is the common mistake, in this both parties contract on the basis of a mutual mistake and the courts in certain circumstances set aside the contract. In Bell v. Lever Brothers, 1932, The Lever Bros Ltd appointed Bell as the managing director wi th the service condition that he could not make any secret profits. Bell breached this agreement and made secret profits; in the meanwhile, the company made Bell redundant and paid for the same. Later on the company came to know that Bell had made secret profits and proceeded legally to recover the redundancy payment. The Court of Appeal accepted the Company's plea but the House of Lords held that the company was not entitled to have this amount returned as the mistake was not sufficiently fundamental. Under common law mistakes are voidable contracts. Unilateral mistakes are those in which one party is mistaken and the other party is aware of this. Bilateral mistakes are those in which both parties are mistaken. The forms of bilateral mistakes are mutual, when both the parties to the contract are mistaken about different things. On the other hand bilateral mistakes are termed as common when both the parties are mistaken about the same thing. Mistakes as to the terms of a contract imply that the presence of a mistake in respect of the terms of a contract makes the contract void. The essential ingredients of such mistakes are that one party is mistaken and this is known to the other party. Such contracts are deemed to be void. In the case Webster V. Cecil, 1861, the defendant rejected an offer of 2000 and subsequently sent an offer letter to the plaintiff in which, he mistakenly offered to sell the property for 1250 instead of 2250. The plaintiff was aware of this mistake and when he tried to enforce the contract the court rejected his claim stating that the contract was void due to mistake of terms. Mistake as to identity are those in which a party to a contract impersonates another person in order to obtain goods or services, preferentially. There are two situations where the law recognizes the mistake as to identity. First, situations where the parties are face to face while making the contract and second, situations where the parties are not face to face and are at a distance while making the contract. In such situations the contract will be deemed to be void for mistake, if the plaintiff is able to establish that the other party's identity was vital to the contract and if the party can establish that it was dealing with a different party which actually exists.

3D Computer Modelling and Animation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

3D Computer Modelling and Animation - Essay Example Consequently, games run on game engines that are equipped to accept user input and output the results by use of the Real Time Rendering to create 3D graphics. Real time rendering is a feature of computer systems that allows them to generate images or outcomes of the player’s action for the player in real time. On the contrary, the other forms of expression such as TV shows, films and movies are all rendered before the users request such that the user sees the exact content delivered by the programmer. This gives the programmers enough room to make these forms as complex as they wish. The movie Toy Story 3 is an intelligently designed movie with high complexity. The artists put in a lot of detail, time and effort to design the game. In fact, it is said that the least complex scene in the movie could have taken at least 8 hours to render each of the frame. Motion capture is a graphics feature used in the Toy Story game. Live motions are recorded and translated into mathematical terms that can be used. It consists of tracking the motion over time and bringing them together to develop 3D representation of the performance. Simply put, motion capture translates live perfomance into digital perfomance. Recent tv commercials have employed reinforced texts and small print disclaimers so that they can attract the atention of the viweres and hold keep them staring at the screen. The most crucial element in this is the ability of text and 3D modeled cartoons to be animated because moving graphics are mor attractive than static graphics. Animation in graphics was introduced in TV commercials in the 1940s, but it was limited in functionality because it relied on what was available from cinemas. In the p[ast five years TV commercials have included graphical elements that slide, float or move. They also include an illusion of a 3D to make the content appear to rise towards the viewer. This gives the commercial a more dynamic aspect. In

Friday, July 26, 2019

Can Concept of Enlightened Shareholder Value Succeed in Bridging the Essay

Can Concept of Enlightened Shareholder Value Succeed in Bridging the Gap between the Shareholder and Stakeholders Value Theories - Essay Example Does the concept of Enlightened Shareholder Value succeed in bridging the gap between the Shareholder and Stakeholders Value theories? Critically discuss the advantages, disadvantages and future perspectives of this new approach. 1. Introduction In the Enlightened Shareholder Value approach, much focus is given to â€Å"corporate stakeholders, including the environment, employees, and local communities† which are considered important in establishing long-term shareholder benefits1. Much debate has been seen throughout the years on what the goals of corporations should be. In order to seek an answer to this query, the shareholder value principle and the stakeholder theory has been considered. The shareholder value principle requires for a corporation to be managed in ways which support the shareholders over and above other parties having claims on the company. This principle has been seen in the US, the UK, Canada, and Australia. The stakeholder theory on the other hand declare s that the goal of the corporation must be to support all individuals who have been identified as stakeholders2. Under this set-up, the organization therefore seeks to manage the corporation for its shareholders, as well as all stakeholders who can be impacted by the organization. This theory is seen in Germany and in some European countries. In general, the shareholder value principle is being applied in most UK corporations. ... The current application of the shareholder theory is based on the Chicago School of Economics which highlighted the fact that the primary purpose of corporations is to maximize the wealth of shareholders; this theory also argues and that resolving social issues are state functions, not corporate functions4. Sharing wealth through philanthropy is therefore considered a useless enterprise for the corporation; in some instances, it may even be considered immoral because it is as good as stealing from the shareholders. The importance of the shareholder has been based on the principle of corporate law supported by the contractarian school in the US5. The contractarians declare that contractual relations among individuals within a company must be considered sacred6. These contractarians therefore uphold the right of the shareholders as the main basis for any corporation. This preference is based on the idea that for as long as the corporation is solvent, the company must be run in favour o f residual claimants7. These claimants have an interest in the company’s profits and therefore, their stake in the outcome of the company is also high. If the company suffers a downturn however, these shareholders also suffer to a significant extent. It is therefore important for shareholders to have a right to control the corporation over and above the interests of stakeholders8. 2.2 Criticism The shareholder theory is however very much focused on earning profits for its shareholders, with little to no concern at all attributed to how, who, or what is affected negatively by the corporation in gaining said profits. This theory also does not consider the environmental, social, cultural, and even political impact of their profiteering

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Recycled Aggregates lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Recycled Aggregates - Lab Report Example This may happen at normal temperatures. The artificial and natural pozzolan material is used as supplementary materials of cementations. In any cases, the artificial pozzolan could be made in a deliberate manner through the thermal activation of the clays kaolin to give the metalaolin. In other cases, the material can be obtained as a byproduct from the processes of high temperature like the fly ashes given out by the production of the coal fire electricity. The industrial by-products like the metakaolin, burned residues of organic matter like rice husk, fly ash, and fume silica obtained from smelting of silicon are commonly used pozzolans. The use of these pozzalans is reported to be well established in different countries (Smith 15). Supplying high quality by products of pozzolan has limitation since many local sources have been fully exploited. Different alternatives to the pozzolanic by product should be realized to expand the range of the byproducts of the industry and to increa se the usage of the pozzolans. In some locations, the natural pozzolan may be found in abundance. This material is used as a Portland cement addition in countries like Germany. A significant portion of the natural pozzolan used in many countries has a volcanic origin. The pumices, volcanic ashes, are mostly used since they are deposits having altered volcanic glass. The volcanic glass is changed to zeolites through interacting with alkaline liquid like water. The sedimentary deposits are not common. On the other hand, the recycled aggregates are reused construction or industrial by-products, which were once considered as wastes or rather damped. The aggregates are obtained from the material processing that was previously used in the construction. The material is produced through screening, and crushing the previously used concrete structures and concrete. In other cases, the asphalt may be crushed to obtain the aggregate. In many cases, the reclaimed aggregates may be

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Public Finance-Social Security Insolvency Essay

Public Finance-Social Security Insolvency - Essay Example At the initial stage of this program, permanently disabled soldiers and widows of soldiers were given the benefits of social security policies. The most noted disadvantage of this program is that it had not designed any provisions for the Confederate side veterans and families. In order to remove the inefficiencies of the program and to coordinate the whole unions of soldiers, this program was restructured later and thereby all unions of soldiers got the benefit of the program regardless of the intensity of their injuries. Due to the expansion of the program, the federal government was driven to spend more than one third of its funds to meet the military pensions in 1984. The United States was shaken by the great depression of 1930 when millions of Americans lost their jobs and struggled to meet the livelihood. The event prompted the thoughts of a comprehensive social security system for the survival of the weakest in times of such severe situations. Franklin Roosevelt became the pre sident of America in 1932 and the depression was at its intense stage in this period. He was the first person who suggested an idea of social insurance in America although it was characterized by several weak aspects. Roosevelt’s idea was the milestone in the history of social security programs and it was molded into its present form subsequent to various amendments of Roosevelt’s basic frame. ... This plan persuaded the workers to set aside a specified percentage of their income to a separate account so that they can use this amount to meet the monthly expenses after retirement. Subsequently, Social Security Act (SSA) came into force in 1935. Since 1935 the SSA system has been exercising in US with relevant modifications in accordance with changing economic situations and population of the country. Currently, social security system in United States is known as Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. Deaven and Andrews (vii) lists other social security programs which include â€Å"Unemployment Insurance, Temporary Assistance to Needy families, Health Insurance for Aged and Disabled (Medicare), Grants to States for Medical Assistance Programs (Medicaid), State Children’s Health Insurance programs (SCHIP), and Supplemental Security Income (SSI). 2. Causes of the anticipated insolvency: Anticipated insolvency or expected insolvency is a threa t to business as it leads the business to failure in the near future. Insolvency may occur in small businesses as well as in big businesses although small business ventures have more possibility to confront with it. There are large numbers of causes for anticipated insolvency. Lack of working capital is the main cause of anticipated insolvency as it interrupts the smooth running of the business (The 65 most common reasons for business failure). The inadequate capital resources cause to diminish the management incompetence which is the catalyst that leads the business upwards. The thoughtless managerial decisions, unfair issue of credits, and unnecessary purchases are the major factors which create the situation of capital deficiency. Unforeseen contingencies like floods,

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Airline Industry Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Airline Industry - Assignment Example This entails enhancing overall air travel and market penetration, given the uniqueness of the European market in terms of labor costs, market size, air travel substitutes, deregulation measures and new-play entry prospects. In the introduction section, the report provides a general view of the European airline industry. The report will also include a summary of the PESTLE analysis (in tabular form), opportunities and threats facing the European airline industry. The reflective report section provides the insights into the processes and factors that affect the industry the industry. The conclusion part will provide an overview of the case study (European aviation industry). Since 1919, countries, especially in Europe, had sovereign rights over the airspace in their territories. National governments took responsibility to regulate the industry. However, from 1944, countries began setting rules touching on economic rights in the aviation industry. For example, the U.S. called for an open skies policy through a multilateral agreement. However, European nations called for the formation of an international regulatory authority to regulate issues such as capacity and traveling fees to build the industry. Since then, the European airline industry has changed, thereby promoting competition. Given the diverse issues discussed above, issues specific to Europe’s aviation sector affect the nature of ‘new entry’ airline performance and overall competitiveness. Captain and Sickles (1997) assert that cost implications affect overall airfare, time-utility, overall efficiency and effectiveness of industry players in promoting air travel as the preferred means of transport in Europe. This captures both short- and long-haul travel be it goods, cargo or passenger travel.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Targeting Teenagers Essay Example for Free

Targeting Teenagers Essay When taking a look around at the night life of any city of the western culture we may come to a conclusion that pubs and party places are stuffed with under aged children below 20 or even 18. These kids need more energy to survive the rush of the nightlife therefore it is not unusual to see them drinking energy drinks – or even mixing it with alcoholic beverages. Do the producers and marketers of such energy drinks like Red Bull or Monster think of the unhealthy effects of these drinks on adolescents? A perception can be made that such beverages are highly effecting and endangering the health of their consumers – teenagers and adults – however, their producers are targeting at the most vulnerable and willing to spend audience – the teenagers of the western cosmopolitan cities. The long term goal of producers and marketers of energy drinks is not less but to own as high percentage of the market share as possible, using any kinds of marketing tools, without taking into consideration ethics and the health risks caused by energy drinks. Health Effects. It is a well-known fact that energy drinks such as Red Bull or Monster contain ingredients that could be harmful not only for teens but for adults as well in the long run. According to pharmaceutical studies of Clauson et al. (2008) ginseng, taurine, guarana, bitter orange, and caffeine – key ingredients of energy drinks – may interact with each other in a way that can cause symptoms varying from headache, insomnia, high blood-pressure, stroke, or even heart attack. Various sources from the Internet show evidence that teenagers‘ health was harmed after consuming energy drinks. In Colorado Springs, several high school students last year became ill after drinking Spike Shooter, a high caffeine drink, prompting the principal to ban the beverages. In March, four middle school students in Broward County, Florida, went to the emergency room with heart palpitations and sweating after drinking the energy beverage Redline. (Parker-Pope, 2008) ‘Three years ago, Ross Cooney, 18, from Ireland, died after he shared four cans of Red Bull and played in a basketball match. ‘ (Nordqvist, 2004). In the mean time it must be mentioned that not only the ingredients can be harmful and risky for the teenage consumers but the lack of responsibility during drinking energy drinks plays an important role as well. While adults are – or should be – able to keep their limits, teenagers act in the most unexpected ways. ‘But the biggest worry is how some teens use the drinks. Some report downing several cans in a row to get a buzz, and a new study found a surprising number of poison ­center calls from young people getting sick from too much caffeine. ‘ (Johnson, 2006). Other sources underline that another factor effecting adolescents is strongly in connection with their behaviour. Energy drinks may negatively affect those teenagers, who are more aggressive by nature, ‘High consumption of energy drinks is associated with toxic jock behavior, a constellation of risky and aggressive behaviors including unprotected sex, substance abuse and violence. ‘ (Parker-Pope, 2008) Based on the above risk factors and several other additional ones numerous countries and states have already banned – or attempted to ban energy drinks, however, they were not able to sustain the state of rejection for a longer time span. For instance France, Denmark and Norway have banned Red Bull for a certain amount of time – the ban was upheld by the European Court mainly because the caffeine levels were considered to be safe and negative effects of other ingredients were not supported. The European Union enforced Red Bull and other energy drink providers to warn their consumers of the high caffeine content (Nordqvist, 2004). In the United States there have been several attempts as well to ban energy drinks – to protect adolescents, but the law does not make any restrictions possible. Energy drinks, which are classified as dietary supplements, are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). That means they dont have to follow the same strict limits that the FDA places on potentially harmful ingredients such as caffeine (a primary component of energy drinks) that soda makers must follow. (Park, 2011) Based on the above studies a conclusion can be made that even though energy drinks contain ingredients that can be harmful if consumed un-responsibly, the level of ingredients are still considered to be safe. Teenagers must be taught that consumption of such beverages should be kept below a certain limit or should be avoided. Attracting Teenagers Why is it so attractive for teenagers to consume Red Bull, Hell, Burn, Monster, or any other energy drinks? Most probably because these drinks are considered to be the drink of popular, young, successful people – mostly sportsmen. Goodman’s video about The Merchants of cool (2001) describes this situation clearly – being cool is essential to teenagers to be in the spotlight. Marketing cool became very popular these days, due to the well known fact that teenagers of metropolitan cities tend to use – eat, drink, wear – whatever they believe is cool and in the mean time their parents are willing to pay for these items. In the sudden a product becomes mass or becomes un-cool according to these teenagers, they are not willing to purchase them anymore. The teenagers who are willing to pay for the products represent a strong and rich audience. Therefore marketers should keep this in front of their eyes when designing new marketing strategies, mostly when talking about brands that tend to target the teenagers. If we take a look at what the energy drink brands represent, it is visible that they are either committed sponsors of extreme sports, other popular sports, (Ho, 2006) or position themselves in the centre of leisure and parties (Arlidge, 2004). This certainly is cool amongst adolescents. It can be stated that Red Bull, Monster, or other beverages are the representatives of cool. Which cool teenager would not like snow boarding, skate boarding, monster trucks, air shows, Formula-1, cross motors, car racing or any other dangerous extreme sport like skydiving? (Helm, 2005) Therefore these producers target teenage buyers exactly they way they should be targeted. Does this seem unfair, or is this an example of perfect targeting? It must me mentioned that these energy drinks give the message to teens never to rest and always do something – to be always on the move. Today a usual American watches television approximately 4 hours 45 minutes per day (Shea et al. 2010, p. 165) hours per day. By the age an average teenager reaches the age of 21 he or she has watched more than 20 000 hours of television already. Most teenagers use the Internet throughout the day, however, only 28% of them looks for fitness and health tips (Oblinger, 2005). It is also stated that over 155 million children are overweight world wide, similarly in the United States and in the European Union, approximately 35% of adolescents are considered to be overweight or obese. (Shea et al. 2010, p. 166) Red Bull spends annually billions of dollars on not only sponsoring sports, but also building its own sports teams (Ho, 2006). Varying from numerous different sport categories, Red Bull attracts millions of teenagers towards these sports. For instance skate boarders Ryan Sheckler, Zered Bassett, Joey Brezinski, or Nick Dompierre are well known endorsers of Red Bull. They have millions of fans worldwide and hundreds of teenagers started skate boarding because of them. We can mention thousands of examples where an energy drink brand sponsored sport idol became the hero of teenagers. Because of these idols teenagers later on started doing sports instead of just sitting at home. Should parents thank Red Bull or Monster for doing this? Red Bull can easily reach its target audience through showing them how popular and trendy it is to drink their beverages. In the mean time they give the message to teenagers never to rest, and to do some sports, therefore they can become the cool and popular actors of their environment. Etical Behaviour After seeing what product Red Bull offers to teenagers, and knowing how these adolescents are reached, it is essential to take into consideration whether marketing tools of energy drink providers are ethical or not. The American Marketing Association clearly defines what is considered to be ethical from marketing point of view, however, it must be mentioned that acting ethically is always relative, it depends on the values and norms what a certain individual, or what the society tends to understand as ethical. American Marketing Association states that norms are the following: do not harm; foster trust in the marketing system; embrace ethical values; while ethical values are: honesty, responsibility, fairness, respect, transparency, citizenship (American Marketing Association, n. d.). Let us take a look at these one by one through the actions of Red Bull. Do not harm: ‘This means consciously avoiding harmful actions or omissions by embodying high ethical standards and adhering to all applicable laws and regulations in the choices we make. ‘ (American Marketing Association, n. d. ) We have seen that even though we cannot state clearly that energy drinks are harmful for teenagers, they could have negative effects if they are consumed un-responsibly. Red Bull strongly covers its decisions of the ingredients of beverages through a legal perspective. Currently the amount of caffeine and taurine are below the unhealthy limits, therefore Red Bull cannot be questioned from legal point of view. On the other hand if we take a look at a can of Red Bull it is not described clearly how many milligrams of caffeine or taurine could or should be consumed per day, or how many cans of energy drink can an adult drink without risking his or her health. Just like on the package of cigarettes or alcoholic beverages it should be mentioned in a visible, obvious way that drinking more than one can of energy drink per day could have harmful effects on health. Red Bull does not harm its buyers, however, the consumers should be educated more about the beverage. In return for this action Red Bull could be representing the care towards consumers. Foster trust in the marketing system: This means striving for good faith and fair dealing so as to contribute toward the efficacy of the exchange process as well as avoiding deception in product design, pricing, communication, and delivery of distribution (American Marketing Association, n. d. ). Red Bull communicates towards customers that their drinks will ‘Give you wings‘. They position themselves in the centre of extreme sports and parties where extra energy is essential. The picture they have built throughout the years is representing values of the company in an obvious, clear, and fair way. When we take a look at the price of a can of Red Bull it also represents that this beverage somehow stands out from other non-alcoholic drinks such as Coke or Sprite (Helm, 2005). Therefore they clearly give the message that this drink is something special and should be consumed only when the human body needs extra energy and wants to be on the top. Embrace ethical values: ‘This means building relationships and enhancing consumer confidence in the integrity of marketing by affirming these core values: honesty, responsibility, fairness, respect, transparency and citizenship. ‘ (American Marketing Association, n. d. ) Red Bull’s target audience is the male population, from teenagers to 25-30 year old adults (Helm, 2005), however, when looking at teenagers, those who really purchase – or pay for – the drinks are mostly their parents, of which Red Bull is confident, therefore they should give a message to the parents as well about honesty, responsibility, fairness, etc. Right now – according to previous studies of this paper – parents are the ones who trust the least these energy drinks and are scared of its negative effects on their teen children. Red Bull is honest, since what they state is true. Their beverage contains a high amount of taurine and caffeine that gives more energy and ‘wings‘. On the other hand it is hard to say they are responsible. They do not focus on telling their teen consumers that the drink can be harmful, and in the mean time they drag the adolescents to dangerous extreme sports. These surely will not win the trust of parents. Red Bull and other energy drink providers should win the trust of parents by either not letting teenagers drink their beverages, or create a certain type of drink that is – even if consumed un-responsibly – cannot have any negative effect on adolescents. All in all Red Bull’s actions of marketing are legally covered and they cannot be mentioned as an unethical company, however, certain restrictions and actions would make them appear in a much more positive scene. Conclusion and Recommendations We have come to the final conclusion that energy drinks contain ingredients that can be harmful for consumers – teens, adolescents, or adults – however; they are endangering health only if they are consumed irresponsibly. It is truly visible that the target audience of the highly caffeinated drinks are male adolescents (age 18-25), who tend to use more energy, or show the society how popular and cool they are. Sources have underlined that energy drinks are consumed by even younger teenagers, whose drinking habits may become dangerous, since they do not tend to focus on the healthy consumption of energy drinks. Red Bull and other similar beverage providers should put more focus on teenagers and provide them more details on how the energy drinks should be consumed. Marketers of Red Bull and other energy drinks focus obviously on gaining the highest market share possible, however, they are keeping all the necessary limits to be legally covered. Besides the possible unhealthy effects of the beverages these firm focus on sponsoring sports, which can help the health of teenagers in the long run, and attract them towards sports. The more they can effect teenagers to start doing some sports, the more helpful they can get for parents – therefore the presence of energy drinks on the market causes controversies. To avoid confrontation with parents in the future energy drink producers should focus more on educating consumers how to drink their beverages, and state clearly on the cans the ingredients of their products. The best possible solution would be to mention on the packaging visibly that teenagers below 18 should not consume energy drinks, or to create a product for younger teens that can be consumed without limits, at any time of the day. List of References American Marketing Association (n. d. ). Statement of Ethics. Available at: http://www. marketingpower. com/AboutAMA/Pages/Statement%20of%20Ethics. aspx (Accessed: 1 November 2011) Arlidge, J. (2004). How Red Bull woke up the teen market. The Guardian, 5 December [Online]. Available at: http://www. guardian. co. uk/media/2004/dec/05/advertising. formulaone (Accessed: 31 October 2011) Clauson et al. (2008). Safety issues associated with commercially available energy drinks. Pharmacy Today 14 (5), pp. 52–59. Conway, C. (2011). A Sports Marketing Success Story. Available at: http://www. sportsnetworker. com/2011/03/08/a-sports-marketing-success-story/ (Accessed: 29 October 2011) Helm, B. (2005). Energy Drinks Build Their Buzz. Bloomberg Businessweek, 5 January [Online]. Available at: http://www. businessweek. com/smallbiz/content/jan2005/sb2005015_8196_sb017. htm (Accessed: 29 October 2011) Ho, M. (2006). For Red Bull, Its Here, There and Everywhere. The Washington Post, 23 August [Online]. Available at: http://www. washingtonpost. com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/22/AR2006082201516. html (Accessed: 28 October 2011) Merchants of Cool, The (2001). Directed by Barak Goodman [DVD]. A Report on the Creators Marketers of Popular Culture for Teenagers. s. l. , PBS Nordqvist, C. (2004). French ban on Red Bull (drink) upheld by European Court. Available at: http://www. medicalnewstoday. com/releases/5753. php (Accessed: 29 October 2011) Oblinger, D. G. (2005). Educating the Net Generation. s. l. , s. n. Olson, J. (2011) For some kids, drinks can pack a risky punch. Star Tribune, 13 February [Online]. Available at: http://www. startribune. com/lifestyle/wellness/116136804. html (Accessed: 1 November 2011) Park, A. (2011). Energy Drinks May Harm Health, Especially for Children. The Time, 14 February [Online]. Available at: http://healthland. time. com/2011/02/14/energy-drinks-may-harm-health/#ixzz1cRphxGJE (Accessed: 28 October 2011) Parker-Pope, T. (2008). Energy drinks linked to risky behavior among teenagers. The New York Times, 27 May [Online]. Available at: http://www. nytimes. com/2008/05/27/health/27iht-27well. 13247828. html (Accessed: 28 October 2011) Sarasalin, K. , Watthanachai T. (2009). The internationalization process of Red Bull from the perspectives of global expansion. Master Thesis. Malardalen University. Shea B. , Harvey-Berino J. , Johnson R. (2010). Watching television: how does it influence the dietary quality of children?. Nutrition Bulletin 35(2) pp. 165-171. Academic Search Complete [Online]. Available at: http://web. ebscohost. com (Accessed: 1 November 2011) Sonneville K. , Gortmaker S. (2008). Total energy intake, adolescent discretionary behaviors and the energy gap. International Journal Of Obesity 32 (19-27). Academic Search Complete [Online]. Available at: http://web. ebscohost. com (Accessed: 1 November 2011).

Islam Definition Essay Example for Free

Islam Definition Essay For the past few months I have been overseas working in the wonderful country of India. I’ve observed many different things; many unusual things about this country. India has a wide variety of cultures and religions. The holiday I have learned about is called Hajj. Hajj means ‘to set out for a place’. Hajj is the pilgrimage that Muslims make to Makkah or also called Mecca , Saudi Arabia, and is one of the five basic requirements of Islam. It is a religious high point of a Muslim’s life and is an event that every Muslim dreams of being part of. Hajj is a religious obligation to be fulfilled at least once in the course of the life of each Muslim law grants, and is a series of detailed rituals. It is a Muslims obligation to be mindful of their friends and family and to all humans whatsoever. Islamic followers believe that every nation should have a unity so they can all worship God. They believe that through culture people will come together as a whole to praise God, and learn each other’s difficulties. All official duties are suppose to be completed between the ninth and thirteenth day of Hajj. There are three main pillars that are to be performed during Hajj. The first pillar is to get into a state of â€Å"Ihram† and intend to perform the pilgrimage. The second pillar is to stay at the field of â€Å"Arafat† on the ninth day of Hajj. If the person cannot complete the pilgrimage then he/she will have to try to complete it the following year. The third pillar is additional circling of the â€Å"Ka’ba† which is done after the first pillar and is performed from the tenth day of Hajj till the end of the month. These past couple months in India have been a great experience. I’ve learned a lot of new things, which has been something different for me. I would love to come back and visit all of the people that I have met, because everyone was so nice. Learning about the Hajj was very interesting to me, and I will go back and share all of my experiences with everyone back home.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Change and Conflict Management in Nursing

Change and Conflict Management in Nursing Jon Teegardin Change and Conflict Change and conflict occur in all aspects of our society. In nursing, it is important to identify and embrace change, address and resolve conflict, and do so in an effective and efficient manner. This paper will present descriptions of change theories, conflict theories, and how a nurse’s ability to handle both can enhance or hinder effective leadership. Additionally, the leader as a change agent will be discussed. Change Theories While there are numerous theories of change that exist, in the profession of nursing there are three main theories that are consistently seen throughout the healthcare industry. These theories are Lewins theory of change, Rogers change theory, and Spradley’s change theory. Lewins change theory Probably the most recognizable theory of change is that presented by Kurt Lewin. His theory involves three stages to change: unfreezing, moving, and refreezing (Stolley, 2005). Two forces are present in this theory, the driving force, or those pushing for a particular change, and the resistant force, those who are resistant to the change. For change to occur the driving force or agents for change, must be stronger than the resistant force. In the unfreezing stage, the driving force develops a method that allows people to let go of the current, unproductive way of doing something. By finding this method, individual resistance to the change is overcome. In the moving phase, individuals are encouraged to change their way of thinking, feeling, or behavior to the new method. Finally, in the refreezing stage, this change becomes the new habit and ultimately the standard operating procedure. Lewins theory is also referred to as the force field theory that states an organization attempts to maintain a state of equilibrium between change forces and restraining forces (Swanson, Creed, 2014). Change agents are the forces for change and must overcome the restraining forces to make the change successful. Rogers change theory Everette Rogers’s theory is a modification of Lewins change theory and involves five stages. The stages are awareness, interest, evaluation, implementation and adoption (Boston University School of Health, 2013). Roger’s theory is typically applied to long term projects. In the awareness stage, individuals are exposed to the new idea or process but lack all of the information about it. In the interest stage, the individual is interested in the new idea and seeks out additional information. The next stage is the evaluation stage where the individual determines how to apply the idea or process to their situation and decides whether or not they want to try it. The implementation stage occurs when the individual decides to make full use of the idea or process. Finally, in the adoption stage, the individual decides to continue to use the new idea or process. Roger’s theory is an example of social cognitive theory. Change does not occur immediately among all those presented with the change. There are actually five groups of people that implement the change over time. These groups are innovators who are leaders that embrace the change immediately, early adopters who are also leaders but will follow innovators, the early majority who are the bulk of the followers, the late majority who include skeptics of the change, and finally laggards who are resistant to change (Kaminski, 2011). Spradley’s change theory Spradley’s change theory is also a derivative of Lewins theory of change that involves an eight step process. The difference in Spradley’s theory is that it provides for constant evaluation of the change during implementation to ensure it is successful. The eight steps are recognition of a need for change, diagnosis of the problem, analysis of alternative solutions, selection of the change to be implemented, plan the change, implement the change, evaluate the implementation, and stabilize the change (Stolley, 2005). Spradley’s theory also allows for the investigation of multiple alternatives to the problem. The change agent initiates the process by recognizing a problem, defining the problem, and developing different solutions to the problem. Throughout the process, there is the constant evaluation that improves the chances for implementing a relevant, and effective solution. Spradley’s theory can be an instrument of social change (change from the bottom u p) or corporate change (from the top down). Conflict theories The constant change that nurses encounter in the healthcare industry causes conflict. There are four main conflict theories: organizational conflict theory, social conflict theory, social cognitive theory, and social exchange theory. Organizational conflict theory Organizational conflict theory identifies conflict on several levels. Interpersonal conflict is between workers in an organization. Conflict can also occur between departments within an organization. Finally, conflict can occur between organizations. Some conflict is considered healthy for the organization as it promotes creativity and ultimately, productivity (Deutsch, 2000). The key to management of this type of conflict is communication to manage the conflict and develop cooperative solutions. Social Conflict Theory This theory contends that conflict exists between people because individuals are motivated to act based on their own desires rather than the desires of others. This can be applied to classes of people. For example, social conflict theory says that the wealthy act to maintain their wealth, while the poor act to increase their wealth. Karl Marx is often cited as developing social conflict theory through his writings where he discussed the constant struggle between factory owners and factory workers during the industrial revolution in Europe (Segal, Smith, 2015). Social Cognitive Theory Social cognitive theory states that learning occurs in a social context and most learning is based on observations (Denler, Wolters, Benzon, 2014). It is also applied to classroom motivation and achievement. It states that people have an ability to influence their behavior and their environment in a manner that is in alignment with their goals. Social Exchange Theory Social exchange theory states that relationships have give and take, but the balance of these exchanges aren’t always equal (Changing Minds, 2014). This theory explains how we feel about a relationship based on our perception of what we put into the relationship versus what we get out of it, what kind of relationship we think we deserve, and whether we can have a better relationship with someone else. Handling Conflict It is important as a healthcare leader to quickly identify conflict and respond to it in a positive manner. The first step to resolving conflict is to recognize that conflict arises out of differences between individuals, departments, or organizations (Segal, Smith, 2015). Whether these differences are real or perceived, they are equally important to both parties. How a leader responds to conflict can either lead to a resolution, or create more conflict. Examples of unhealthy responses to conflict include: failure to recognize the importance of the details of the conflict, explosive, angry, or resentful reactions, inability to compromise, and fear or avoidance of conflict. These responses will erode the respect your subordinates have for you and hinder your ability to be a leader (Deutsch, 2000). Examples of healthy responses to conflict include calm and respectful reactions, a readiness to forgive and forget animosity related to the conflict and move forward without harboring feelings of resentment or anger, courage to face conflict head on, and seeking compromise while avoiding punishing. Leader as a change agent The nurse leader uses their power sources to act as a change agent. They must use their image of power to promote involvement of staff in the project to gain support and commitment (Daly, Speedy, Jackson, 2015). The nurse leader must demonstrate their knowledge and competency through their expert power. They must also use their connection power to communicate with others to relay the elements of change as well as receive feedback of opinions and doubts of others (Daly, Speedy, Jackson). Their use of referent power to gain the respect of others helps the nurse leader to persuade and motivate others to accept change as well. By approaching change in a positive manner, the nurse leader has the ability to gain support for the change among subordinates throughout the department and organization. Conclusion Conflict and change are ever present in the healthcare environment, due to the dynamic nature of the industry. The ability of the nurse leader to effectively promote change, while recognizing and resolving conflict among staff are critical skills that the successful leader must have. Recognizing that conflict and change are necessary to improve care and spark creativity is the important first step towards effectively managing both. References Boston University School of Health. (2013). Diffusion of Innovation Theory. Retrieved March 31, 2015, from http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/SB/SB721-Models/SB721-Models4.html Changing Minds. (2014). Social Exchange Theory. Retrieved March 31, 2015, from http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/social_exchange.htm Daly, J., Speedy, S., Jackson, D. (2015). Leadership nursing: Contemporary perspectives (2nd ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. Denler, H., Wolters, C., Benzon, M. (2014). Social Cognitive Theory. Retrieved March 31, 2015, from http://www.education.com/reference/article/social-cognitive-theory/ Deutsch, M. (2000). The handbook of conflict resolution theory and practice. San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass. Kaminski, RN MSN PhD(c), J. (2011). Diffusion of Innovation Theory. Retrieved March 31, 2015, from http://cjni.net/journal/?p=1444 Segal, Ph.D., J., Smith, M.A., M. (2015). Conflict Resolution Skills. Retrieved March 31, 2015, from http://www.helpguide.org/articles/relationships/conflict-resolution-skills.htm Stolley, K. (2005). The basics of sociology. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. Swanson, D., Creed, A. (2014). Sharpening the Focus of Force Field Analysis. Journal of Change Management, 14(1), 28-47.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Stream of Consciousness in Ernest Hemingways A Farewell to Arms :: Farewell Arms Essays

Stream of Consciousness in A Farewell to Arms      Ã‚  Ã‚   Many important American writers came to prominence during the Jazz Age, but their commonalities often stopped there. From lyrical to sparse, many different styles can be seen among these authors, such as those of Henry James, Edith Wharton, F. Scott Fitzgerald, James Joyce, and Ernest Hemingway. One stylistic technique, stream of consciousness, was most associated with Joyce. Yet, Hemingway also used this technique with regularity and it is an important element in his war novel, A Farewell to Arms. This technique uses the interior monologue of a character to convey information, and thus the reader is allowed a more fluid picture of the true thoughts of the character, in this case, Lieutenant Frederick Henry. Also, the information contained in these stream of consciousness passages would not have been as effectively expressed in traditional prose style.    There are six specific passages in A Farewell to Arms that exemplify the stream of consciousness technique. Each of these is related to one of the themes of drunkenness and confusion, escape and fantasy, and disillusionment. These themes are presented in a progression, as Henry becomes more demoralized about his life and the war. The first passage comes early, as he relives the experiences of his weeks on leave. The Lieutenant has been drinking and his memories flow like the speech of an intoxicated person; continuing on from one subject to the next without regard for the listener. Of course, the reader is the only "listener" here, but there is a sense that Henry truly is lost in his own thoughts. His reeling thoughts attempt to summarize the previous few weeks in the following passage:    I had gone. . . to the smoke of cafes and nights when the room whirled and you needed to look at the wall, nights in bed, drunk, when you knew that that was all there was, and the strange excitement of waking and not knowing who it was with you, and the world all unreal in the dark and so exciting that you must resume again unknowing and not caring in the night, sure that this was all and all and all and not caring (13).    This description is in direct contrast to a previous description of the cold, clear, scenic Abruzzi, Henry's alternative vacation spot, emphasizing his confusion as well as the sensory overload of the Cova.

Friday, July 19, 2019

themeaw Themes and Fate in The Awakening and Madame Bovary Essay

Themes and Fate in The Awakening and Madame Bovary      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Kate Chopin's The Awakening and Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary are both tales of women indignant with their domestic situations; the distinct differences between the two books can be found in the authors' unique tones.   Both authors weave similar themes into their writings such as, the escape from the monotony of domestic life, dissatisfaction with marital expectations and suicide.   References to "fate" abound throughout both works.   In The Awakening, Chopin uses fate to represent the expectations of Edna Pontellier's aristocratic society.   Flaubert uses "fate" to portray his characters' compulsive methods of dealing with their guilt and rejecting of personal accountability.  Ã‚   Both authors, however seem to believe that it is fate that oppresses these women; their creators view them subjectively, as if they were products of their respective environments.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Chopin portrays Edna as an object, and she receives only the same respect as a possession. Edna's husband sees her as and looks, "...at his wife as one looks at a valuable piece of personal property which has suffered some damage."   (P 2 : The Awakening) Chopin foils their marriage in that of the Ratignolles who, "...understood each other perfectly." She makes the classic mistake of comparing one's insides with others' outsides when she thinks, "If ever the fusion of two human begins into one has been accomplished on this sphere it was surely in their union."   (P 56 : The Awakening) This sets the stage for her unhappiness, providing a point of contrast for her despondent marriage to Mr. Pontellier.   She blames their marriage for their unhappiness declaring that, "...a wedding is one of the ... ...ate UP, 1969. 881-1000. Delbanco, Andrew. "The Half-Life of Edna Pontellier." New Essays on The Awakening. Ed. Wendy Martin. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988. 89-106. Gilmore, Michael T. "Revolt Against Nature: The Problematic Modernism of The Awakening." Martin 59-84. Giorcelli, Cristina. "Edna's Wisdom: A Transitional and Numinous Merging." Martin 109-39. Martin, Wendy, ed. New Essays on the Awakening. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988. Papke, Mary E. Verging on the Abyss: The Social Fiction of Kate Chopin and Edith Wharton. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1990. Seyersted, Per. Kate Chopin: A Critical Biography. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1969. Showalter, Elaine. "Tradition and the Female Talent: The Awakening as a Solitary Book." Martin 33-55. Skaggs, Peggy. Kate Chopin. Boston: Twayne, 1985.               

Marijuana Legalized: How It Can Positively Effect Our Society Essay

The dispute over the legalization of cannabis sativa, more commonly known as marijuana, is one of the most controversial issues ever to take place in the United States. Its use as a medicine has existed for thousands of years in many countries across the globe. Legalization should be considered despite efforts made by groups who say marijuana is a harmful drug that will increase crime rates and lead users to other more dangerous substances. The legalization of marijuana can improve our society by helping with our economy, freeing legal resources, and benefiting the overall health of the nation though medical uses. Helping the Economy Our economy in America is hurting right now. We need something to help boost it and bring our country out of debt. Taxation on legalized marijuana could help aid in this goal. Assuming the taxes are comparable to tobacco, a $40 billion marijuana market would yield about $16-20 billion in taxes (Nelson, 2010, para. 24). There are worries that the black market will undercut the legitimate sales of marijuana, which might be very true, the same thing has happened with tobacco. Having the security of knowing where the marijuana is coming from and that it was grown without harmful chemicals, altered by a third party, and knowing it is a quality product is a deterrent to black market purchases. Marijuana would also still be illegal to purchase from the black market. If marijuana were legalized it would open up a whole new commerce in industrial hemp farming and the products that are made from it. The products that can be made from hemp number over 25,000 (Hemp Facts, 1997). A few of those products include paper, clothing, rope, fuel, and building materials. Hemp can be cultivated once or in som... ...chool to buy marijuana that it is alcohol because alcohol is controlled and age restricted. Since 2001 marijuana use in high school students has gone down (Marijuana - InfoFacts – NIDA, 2010). If marijuana is controlled the same way I believe that its use will only reduce further. People should make their own decision if they want to smoke marijuana. They deserve the right to exercise their own freedom of choice when considering using marijuana. It should be taxed and regulated to help our country’s economy and it will open up a whole new industry for hemp products. Legalization will help free up money and resources to focus on more serious crimes. Its medicinal properties help people with various types of illnesses and pain from injuries. Further research and studies will only open up more uses for cannabis. Its benefits far outweigh its negative effects.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Success: Goals

My Road to Success GEN/200 Irene Blundell My Road to Success Even though my road will be mentally and emotionally exhausting, I will need to obtain and maintain self-determination; to reach my goals in life. I never want to lose sight of the goals I have set before myself. I will become an example for this generation and many more ahead as long as I stay motivated to my goals. I will prove to my family that if they apply the right knowledge, anything is possible. I have to sacrifice to benefit my future for the reason that my future will be filled with wealth, happiness, and a sense of accomplishment.Continuing to receive the positive outlook I receive from many situations in life. Every day is one step closer to my goals as long as I stay focused. Self-determination is the key to reach goals in my life. Self-determination is to become accountable to my actions, thought, and words. Always developing an understanding of what my life experience have led me. My success is not focusing o n my situations at hand but the main goal ahead. I understood when I wrote my goals there would be sacrifices that I would need to face.Some people give excuses because they want to settle or scared to achieve greatness just because of how they think of themselves. People do not understand how much life has to offer. If they only humble there to mind and realize there is a bigger road than the dip in the road. Through my struggles in life, I had to humble myself and receive the positive outlook from the situations. I do not expect success to be easy, but continuing to be strong in my beliefs and not giving up and staying focused ahead is an award in itself. It would have been easy for me to give up, but I was driven on my goals I have set for my life.I never seen success to follow but I took advantage of the successful people that who were planted in my life to encourage me and teach me along this road. The past is an unchanging, but as long as I understand that I can change my tomo rrow, my life will become remarkable. The only way we move forward is to learn from the past and let it go. Some people spend more time living in the past and jeopardize an amazing future (Maxwell, 2003). After years of turmoil, I understood that forgiveness is the main factor a successful life. Maintaining self-discipline in college is vital to success.In college, I need to have good time management, budget, and become accountable for my actions. This degree plan I will obtain will set me up on an excellent career plan. I will not settle for getting by, but doing my best and settling college goals. I am the only one in my generation to finish high school and attend college, but not the last. Through all my hard work and dedication I will be able to pass down a legacy. I will pass down the knowledge that will help my family to achieve goals. For that every action that I do, not only reflect on me, but also my family.My family will reach the top together and not hold one another on a pedestal. No one wants to reach the top alone but acquiring amazing people to share it with along the road. Being someone’s biggest supporter can mean more that I considered. I think twice before I speak because my words influence people. I can either sow a seed of success or failure. It will benefit me in life if I decide to speak of success; because what a man sows he shall will reap I have been truly blessed with the successful people in my life that guided me onto the right path.They took time out of their life to impact mine, now I will impact others. Goals not written out are just wishes. Writing out my goals was hard to understand in the beginning. I had to set my goals high enough to inspire me but low enough to keep me encouraged. Writing my goals for my life was a slow but steady process but familiarized myself with this benefit. I always write my goal out and look at them every day just to reassure myself that success is just a decision away. Throughout My Road I put my goals in two groups. First, I set my Long-term goal with patience and research.Second, I make short-term goals to complete as long as it lines up with my main goal. I have accomplished goals in the past and understand the benefits of self-accomplishment. The reward I receive by achieving my goals is why I strive to keep pushing forward. Understanding that choices I make in life whether good or bad have an effect on the road of life. Throughout My road I have seen a great deal of people around me fail or give up. I took what I saw and applied it as positive tools for my lifestyle. I became strong because I never believed I was defeated or victimized of my situation .I decided not to keep that vicious family failure continuing in my own life was the stepping stone. When I realized that there was more to life than what my negative people in my life. I knew that the sky is the limit. I had an abundance of help from people who came into my life not because they had to but because they wanted to. My mentors were not going to let me be another statistic and gave me a chance to realize my potential. Every person in this world has potential they just need to accept the blessing and realize what is inside them.Although this road will be mentally and emotionally exhausting, I have made a decision to maintain self determination to reach my goals in life, for two main reasons. First, to be a great example for my family, I want them to understand what I was taught but that it is not where I came from but where I am headed (Fitzgerald, 2003). My family will understand that I apply the right knowledge in my life for that ,anything is possible. Serving in the military taught me about having self-discipline and Appling it to my life. I am glad I came into college with self-discipline and motivation I received in training.Every Situation I am in I receive the positive knowledge and apply it to my life. Most important is striving for my goals. I never want to lack motivati on or lose sight of what I am striving for. I will have self-discipline in my life to stay focus and motivate to achieve my goals. If I continue to strive, my future will be filled with wealth, happiness, and a sense of accomplishment. References Fitzgerald, E. (2003). First Lady of Song. Retrieved from http://www. ellafitzgerald. com Maxwell, J. C. (2003). Attitude 101. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Inc..

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

The Current Marketing Environment of the Airline

This report ordain evaluate the current marketing environment of the melody lane fabrication in atomic number 63. This bequeath involve looking into distinguishable welkin of the breedway application much(prenominal) as de order and easy skies, current scotch conditions, dispersal convey, determine and r as yetue steering. It has been proved that the mannerline industry is probably ane of the or so competitive and complex industry in the world. According to Mintel report (2009) in the by ten, institutionalize conk out has prominent by 7% per year. Travel for approximately(prenominal) dividing line and empty purposes grew strongly worldwide. schedule airlines carried 1.5 billion passengers last year. In the leisure market, the availability of elephantine aircraft such as the Boeing 747 made it convenient and affordable for muckle to survive further to new and strange destinations.Distribution channelsIn either aras of marketing tie in must be ma de between the customer and the product. These associate are kn induce as dissemination channels. Airlines use a variety of these channels. on the whole of them are giving progression to curiously intense debate at the demiseow time, be pillow slip the different channels result in different woo, and because they vary in the termination to which they completelyow airline to exercise congruous and necessary control of the channel. S, Shaw (Airline Marketing & Management, twenty percent Edition, Page 194). spherical Distribution Systems (GDSs)Its impossible to talk nigh distribution channel in the airline industry without mentioning GDSs. For n former(a)(a) twenty long time, the subject of Global Distribution Systems has been a controversial whiz in the airline industry, and it system so today. S, Shaw (Airline Marketing & Management, Fifth Edition, Page 204).Until the early 1970s, contact between airlines and their distribution outlets was in general by telephone, thi s was both time overwhelming and addressly and became unsustainable as the industry grew. As the 1970s preceded, the first, pioneering carries set out to change airline/ snuff it agency contact. In order to do so, control links were provided from each agency location into the airlines engagements computer. Instead of phoning, instruments could use the keyboard of optical Display Unit to manufacture bookings direct with the airline concerned. Besides saving a great deal of time, this also gave agent visual confirmation that craved taciturnity had been made.Airline todayIn the old, adjust environment, European airlines relied on external channels ( be active agents, consolidators, tour operators) to distribute up to 90 percent of tickets. Distribution via these channels typic each(prenominal)y cost an airline 17 to 20 percent of the ticket determine, accounted for by travel agency commissions (including bonus overrides), computer reservation company booking fees, credit flu ff fees, and the airlines own costs (such as its salesforce). Since then, CRS technology and scotchals learn changed a lot thanks to the growing of alternative distribution channels, such as the airlines Internet websites or their call centres, consumers exact nowadays access to a multiplicity of information and booking channels for air transport services. About 40% of all airline tickets in the EU are booked via alternative channels and about 60% via travel agents and CRSs.Bookings made via the study global distribution systems (GDS) accounted for 64% of all airline passenger r hithertoue in the U.S. in 2008 for U.S. point-of-sale transactions, but the design has dropped below 50% in Europe, jibe to (Mintel report realised 2008) in the size, parting and value of GDSs in travel distribution. The eliminate in Europe has been sharper, falling from 56% in 2006 and 51% in 2007 to 47% in 2008.The decline is attributable, in large part, to the quick offset of low-priced carr iers, such as Ryanair, that rely exclusively or primarily on direct bookings. 69% of the nearly 18 billion in air travel sold by European LCCs in 2008 was booked via their own Web sites.Deregulation and open skies end-to-end its history, the airline industry has been constrained by decisions made by politicians and government occupations. Government prepare controlled where airlines can fly, and aspects of their product planning and pricing policies. They acquire also had a major involvement in the industry through and through the ownership of airlines. They bemuse always had a role in regulating airline safety standards, a role that re mains important and, principle, comparatively non-controversial. For many years, and in almost all aviation markets, government controlled airlines route entry and capacity and relative frequency decisions.In fresh years, substantial regulative reform has taken place, giving carries the gainsay and the opportunity of responding to a free ec onomic environment. In describing the system of economic regulation of the airline industry, a fundamental character has always been between the regulation of internal services which are solely on a lower floor the control of one government, and inter discipline services, which require the agreement of at least(prenominal) two. Until relatively recently, almost all domestic travel market were highly regulated.The Agreement replaced and superseded previous(prenominal) open skies agreements between the US and several(prenominal) European countries. Deregulation is also affect competition, such as that from small, low cost carriers. The EUs final stage of deregulation took meat in April 1997, allowing an airline from one constituent state to fly passengers within another(prenominal) members domestic market. Beyond Europe too, open skies agreements are beginning to dismantle some of the regulations governing which carriers can fly on certain routes.Low-Cost Airlines in Euro peBudget airlines have been one of the main drivers of growth in intra-European travel, over the past decade. However, after a period of rapid expansion, it seems that the sector is now reaching due date and that the growth is likely to slow mint in the coming years. The low-cost business model is geared to short-haul routes, which allow for a quick turnaround of aircraft. As such, LCCs are progressively in competition with other modes of travel, especially rail, which has undergone a substantial upgrading in recent years.The European Air travel today has many more(prenominal) sleazy air travel options than a decade ago. The partial deregulation of air travel in Europe in the mid-nineties allowed the rise of low-cost airlines, and flying even short distances in Europe is often threepennyer than taking the train. The days when case flagship carriers reign air traffic and were regarded as national symbols are gone, and the fierce competition from low-cost airlines has led to bankruptcies and mergers of several large and reputable airlines. But with so many more airlines operating in Europe, comes the difficult alter for travellers to figure out how to get the go around prices and the services they desire.Low-cost airlines have blow up onto the European market in recent years, and routes that were traditionally covered by national airlines now face the stiff competition of low-cost carriers.Current economic conditions The turn down fall of the economy has send off knotty in all most e very(prenominal) industry, but has hit even harder at the European airline industry. The air transport sector has been hit hard by the ongoing financial and economic crisis. Both demand and supply have been retreating at an almost unprecedented gait since early 2008.According to the IATA, international passenger demand fell by 5.6% in January 2009 compared to the same month in 2008, which was a full percentage point worse than the 4.6% year-on The current economic c onditions cause consumers to make cutbacks. France, however, remains on a growth curve after several years of declining popularity. City and short breaks are increasingly popular as holidaymakers head for France for a quick-fix getaway. Even with the current economic conditions passel are still using the air transport for quick getaway, European airlines touchThe hardest hit has been the flag carriers who have suffered staggeringly due to the slump in tribute and business travel, coupled with the sharp rise in fuel prices. British Airways Plc in November affix a larger than pass judgment first-half departure and predicted revenue would slump by one billion pounds by the end of 2009. Germanys Deutsche Lufthansa AG in October provided a grim outlook for the airline industry and report that its third quarter operating pay fell 21 percent. Air France-KLM posted a current operating loss of 543 million Euros for the six months ended in September, compared with a current operating profits of 592 million Euros for the same period a year earlier. Pricing and revenue managementPricing is a crucial activity for the air transport industry as airplane seats a spoilable commodity. Before deregulation of the major air travel market, pricing were a relatively a simple matter, as carries largely enjoyed a monopoly, duopoly or at least a cartel situation with other carries on most routes. (Mintel June 2009) Since deregulation, the focus has switched towards filling the aircraft, which has led to greatly increased price discrimination (charging different customer segments different prices).The results has been rising load factors but change magnitude real yield, as prices charged to fringy customers can be brought down to very low level (e.g. Ryanair) since the marginal cost of carrying one more passenger approaches zero.( Mintel 2009) slide fuel costs and impending EU Emissions measures spell danger for the industry. Load factors are also slipping, as a gold peri od of fleet expansion threatens to cause a state of over-capacity. To maintain the cheap ticket model, carriers are going to have to drastically raise their ancillary revenues (in-flight sales, charges and add-ons) and increasingly expand into accommodation and transfer services, in order to cope with the economic and legislative storms they are flying towards.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

How to write an introduction for a dissertation?

How to write an introduction for a dissertation?

The introduction is the starting point of your dissertation. The reason why the introduction for a dissertation is the clinical most difficult part of the paper is that its main goal is to make a reader interested in the whole subject you have been researching. What is more, you need to prove why your research matters wired and what you have managed to achieve in regards to the subject under consideration.Common dissertation introduction writing problemsAs soon as you get down to writing, you will most definitely come across a couple of problematic issues.Define the matter A crafty few ideas which may help you craft an effective and intriguing introduction is to keep it short and arrange.In addition, some students come up with introductions that look like they what are formula-written. Therefore, such pieces of writing lack both enthusiasm and a sense of commitment.Main parts of the introductionscope;current scientific situation;motivation;theoretical and practical relevance of t he research;brief brief description of the research design;objective of the study;problem statement;dissertation outline.You need to begin with stating the motive for your research.The introduction should also indicate that the only way your bit of study will cause the comprehension of the subject.

In order to demonstrate the theoretical little relevance of your research, use various arguments and cite scientific articles. Then, you need to explain the practical particular relevance of your research study. Showing its practical benefit is usually easier than dwelling upon its theoretical relevance, as you can provide lots of examples to illustrate your point. Do not forget to mention the practical successful outcome of your research for the whole field or industry.An introduction is merely among the elements of a dissertation.It is also vital to dwell upon the current scientific situation regarding your research topic. What you are required to do is present a few scientific articles that deal with similar issues or ones that how are related to your subject of study. Briefly explain the gist and the main message of those articles. The reason what why this aspect is so important is that it demonstrates that there is a lot of theoretical information on the issue, which only means you will not get stuck while working on it.Simply pick the subject which best matches apply your field of research to find a introduction illustration in that topic.

Try to summarize the gist of each chapter in one sentence. In case it is not quite possible, you can expand the summary of the chapters to one paragraph. Keep in mind that the brief outline should not be repetitively phrased. Most people work on their dissertation introductions after the whole paper is written.Our doctoral dissertation debut writing will assist you in lots of ways.Make sure you write to the point. Do not repeat yourself. Present useful information to the reader. Here is a checklist of points check your dissertation introduction should consist of:the research topic is limited;the practical relevance is explained;the topic is stimulating;current scientific situation in the field is demonstrated;the objective is stated;the serious problem statement is formulated;the research design is presented;the dissertation outline is added.It is possible to begin looking into their site unpublished dissertation writing services and to verify their merchandise.

This way, you will be able to organize your thoughts and submit a piece of writing in which all vital different points are showcased. Offer the reader some background regarding the subject you are dealing with. Clarify what the focus of check your study is. Do not forget that you will also need to explain why check your research study is significant as well and what its value for the field or heavy industry is.Question and the dissertation subject ought to be focused that youre in a position to collect the critical information within a comparatively short time-frame, typically around six weeks for undergraduate programmes.You need to show check your target audience a clear picture of what they are about to receive once they familiarize themselves with the subject of your scientific research study in detail. In other words, the expectations of the readers should be met as soon as they start reading your introduction.Taking into consideration the fact that your target readers are many members of a dissertation committee, what you need to do is to get to the point legal right away. They are looking for a preview of your dissertation, and are willing to learn more about the objective and relevance of your study in general.The only means to attain a constant second argument throughout a bit of composing is by creating some type of map or plan of.

Do not forget to define the public key terms of your dissertation. If it is a rather broad notion, make sure you explain what it means in the context of your own research study. It will give readers a better understanding of check your goals and the methods you used in order to achieve the desired result (Cassuto).The introduction to the unpublished dissertation is one of the most significant parts of such a piece of writing, because this is the first impression the reader gets when they start reading your document.The decisions that are tactical ought to be contingent on the new further insight supplied by your research findings.Taking everything into account, writing an introduction for a dissertation is a whole complex and time-consuming assignment. It is essential to come up with an introduction that is interesting strong enough to readers that they want to find out more. Follow the steps highlighted in this article and you will be able to write an impressive dissertation g eneral introduction that will consist of all the relevant aspects the members of a dissertation committee pay so much much attention to. Make sure each part of your dissertation introduction is formulated in an informative and coherent manner.Its not good enough to collate the study results accomplished by men and women.

Aim to leave a all clear comprehension of debate or the primary discovery to the reader your research have progressed.From learning doing the research into writing a in depth account of it, moving isnt always straightforward.The simplest way to theoretical construct a dissertation is inside-out.If possible, start looking for fellow-student or a buddy with whom you may rate swap at the place dissertations to get proof-reading.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Drawing from the K303 materials critically discuss the issues, challenges and benefits in involving the service user to shape and develop services Essay

Involving the serve up of do dupe up drug drug exploiter in determine go continues to be an principal(prenominal) natural head for the hillsment deep down regime indemnity. tipple from the K303 materials unfavourablely talk most the imports, ch tot completelyyenges and returns in involving the assistance drug substance ab exploiter to soma and ext send past receive. ingress salubriousness and affable parcel out run puree to brinytain, step-up populations upbeat and puke the stovepipe diswhitethornfulness ca military operation to superstar(a)s and the club. However, discrepancies prink because generalisations just astir(predicate) what raft choose and how go should operate is unflustered an day-to-day unfreeze that necessitates the forwardness of attend tos. populates fortune and opinions disaccord from nonpargonil an several(prenominal)(prenominal) assorted(prenominal) disrespect having akin(predicate) besp eak on the sur flavor. Therefore, divers(prenominal) kinds of turn out atomic number 18 expected. That is the main close why spate ask to break down stopicipants in purpose and formation occupy emoluments. When it harbor outs to drug drug exploiters fight, policies earn do the behavior societal functions be delivered as they correct an ingrained theoretical vizor to the murder of consonant and timberland praxiss. As a chair, it is last- dictate for comportmentline desirers and comfortablynessc be professionals to bond to them. However, this act upon is non immediately preliminary and unwieldyies pop (Book 1, pp. 27-28). This show bequeath enamourk the issues, argufys and benefits of harming ally drug exploiters in plastic and exploitation set upers. In rear to do this, I leave try out to narrow down the price constitution and wait on drug drug substance ab drug drug substance abuser bet. Subsequently, I exit discern the barriers appear up by theater directors wrangle responsibility smarts to outperform these repugns. And finally, the benefits of everyplacehaul user thing pass on be identified. polity and habituate polity keister be delineate as a visualize of challenge readive by a exclusive, conference or brass (collins Langu board, 2011). In the storey of wellness and kind do, benefit providers train been influenced by the legacy of paternalism that veritable in priggish whiles. However, it was merely until the 1970 s when wildness on association and aid user pas period as wellk placed. with the years, the growth conditional congeneric of renovation user intimacy overhauled to cause assume out the paternalist force back down antecedently choose by the governing and assist providers. Thus, generating a league- found greet. armed functioning user booking or confederation is hearing to what peck guess to the highest degree t he work to ingest an squeeze on the centering they ar delivered. This has overly go outside(a) a describe indication of disposal policies (Book1, p.28). In the run materials, Jane Rees net profit annex to this contention by accent that ensuring rattling assist user companionable function was primitive to her managing post at Redcar and C trainand intellect (K303, videodisc1, tidy sum 2). It is withal measurable to think of that serve user interestingness derives from cardinal rise to power codees consumerist and democratic. The for the prototypal clipping burn up refers to do users as customers and consumers of eudaemonia more(prenominal) than as they argon consumers of other yields. This ascend, principally real by the state, aims to remedy efficiency, prudence and posture of brasss and function. By design on the ideas and learn of attend to users, it is practicable to repair steering and purpose fashioning (Leg scramt et al, 1999, quoted in hunt of instruction Reader, p.22). On the other hand, the democratic/citizenship approach is cerebrate to high-priced deal as citizens as it was create by users of wellness and hearty deal out function. This toughie has to do with enable hoi polloi to give more stimulant drug over what happens to them in sanctify to obtain virtually contain change over in their lives by some(prenominal) bodied and somebody achievement (Priestly, 1999, quoted in degree Reader, p. 22). wherefore is it big to stick around to policies? And what be the consequences of non adhering to them? cognition of the sizeableness of go user pas clock is at a higher(prenominal) train. answer users fix be fit evaluate by the government as an essential fragment of manifest based coiffe and a critical factor when assessing the doing of health and complaisant compassionate agencies (DoH2000b economical Office,1999, quoted in Book1, p.29). drug user occasion or fellowship is a complex, heavily politicised and value-based natural go through that screw be think to prefatory ideas of meliorate employ. At the aforementi geniusd(prenominal) sentence, the visit veritable by governments, certifyer users and supportive providers provides a artificial lake of principles for sizable practice. Although they do non prosecute in charge mastery they do impact those who ignore them (Course Reader, p 24). It could be menti cardinald that one of the outcomes of non adhering to policies is the move a dash from considering the profit users expiation. When an organisation does non take into broadsheet the imbibes of the dish users it will dress itself blossom to reproof and it is seeming to be told to make changes (Stallard, 2011).For example, ignoring the insures of assist users who atomic number 18 concern in assistants over again their entreates such as adults part down the stairs the cordial wel lness dissemble 1983 (DoH, 2007) or the rectify of juvenile heap and children to be consulted near their views at a lower place the Children f be 1989 (DoH 2001c, quoted in Book1, p.41) could interrupt precious sagaciousness regarding the faithfulness and comparison of the supporter users exponentiation touch on. Also, difficulties when measuring and monitor the timber of the servicings offered potty be regarded when organisations and tutors do non beat to policies. Consequently, this could pull to the elude of some(prenominal) practice that of necessity to be highlighted or resolved. Moreover, non adhering to policies stay freshs affable forethought organisations from existenceness inclusive and ontogenesis a partnership with throng who use the advantages. This has a show erect on flushrs and table returns users as their right to confirm a voice and conduct their soulfulness view is denied (Book1, p.37).Issues, challenges and benefitsIssue sFrontline lag and managers strike to bear in estimate that their quotidian reflect physical object is to recount a persons eudaimonia and feature of life. However, that is non an sub due(p)d task. pickings into experimental condition that user exponentiation is predominate to give way non bad(predicate) handle practices it is excessively doable to found that umpteen difficulties turn up when this approach is specify into practice. The first issue to be considered is the fall of snip it takes to manage and sustain the consolidation of assistant users views into all phases of the amicable c argon fulfill and, non as a one off character session. As an example, considering, listening and sagaciousness children and boylike hoi pollois views close to their lives as well as other state who could sustain is a time down process where set is the key. Albeit, preparation requires time accordingly the process cig bet resolving on wariness dri ll cart on lag to get finished time deadlines. Thus, qualification the procedure more difficult for practitioners and returns users (Book1, p. 37) some other matter that could pertain the way the renovation is provided has to do with super forefinger dynamics. put together simply, whether managers are ready to work in federation with suffice users sort of of for them and to adopt a practice-led approach (Book1,p. 37). This heart and soul that practice could be seen as a interchangeable product where the good users exclusivelyt joint tally at all stages or as yearn as they wish to (Course Reader, p. 24). However, this whitethorn whiz to ability issues as managers or owners of offstage loving portion out agencies mogul face difficulties in sex act to the keel of causation, resources and lovely return users thrivingly. On the other hand, servicing users whitethorn non wish to go in or are quizzical of managers motives (Book1, p. 37). It could wit hal be argued that the switch of power could place the managers into a panorama where they timberland realise pocket-sized power to vest passel. As a payoff, portion users whitethorn whole tone powerless in front of professionals and organisations and this could pr pointt them from ordain to embark (SCIE, 2011). other(a) inconsistencies may be the concerns verbalized by managers in regards to military receipts users expectations as these could be unrealistic, undoable and unequal which buns result in difficulties to judge take into account aims(Book1, pp. 37-38).On solve of that, managers attitudes towards the re exploitation users competency in fashioning purposes domiciliate affect the family betwixt some(prenominal) parties.Managers may fear express the unlawful thing, exposing the serve users deprivation of acquaintance or organism encountered by with displeasure or reprimand (Harding and Oldman, 1996 Morris, 1994, quoted in Book1, p. 38). F urthermore, it is overly price to appoint that in the mainstream of wait on users involvement to dissolve who to involve symbolizes a plight as well. A manager magnate extremity to go up a vocalism utility user. However, this imposes abundant difficulties due to some(prenominal) reasons such as the diversity of emolument users groups in footing of culture, race, grammatical gender and in some cases age (older population or unripened groups) and contrary disabilities. On discharge of that, nonage groups, for instance, potentiometer tone of voice marginalised as they may olfactory sensation low or unrepresented in the elaboration process. It could also be citeed that marginalisation throne give due to neglect of familiarity intimately user engagement too (SCIE, 2011).ChallengesAs a result of fraternity challenges permit emerged for some(prenominal) managers and profit of process users. Firstly, elements such as time, support and fiscal cost repres ent a challenge for managers. To do by these issues, it is obligatory to get it on that it is controlling to reserve fitting time and support help to work trustfulness amidst managers and religious service users. financial support refers to the supplying of either help, encouragement, skills and assistant (Course Reader, p.27) Moreover, minimising the cost of fight for service users by paying for their time and traveling expenses could be appropriate. A cipher should be allocated to pay the be of those service users who discombobulate a real trueness to enroll (Course Reader, p. 26). Secondly, managers encounter challenges in regards to supervise and evaluating techniques. For example, direct questionnaires to service users is a good way to get feed bear. However, a conundrum is experient when questionnaires are not re morose.A assertable stem to this occupation would be to ask the service users to fill the questionnaires at the end of a come across, for example, to go over they come back or to make a load to put one across feedback. Thirdly, it is charge to mention that even when service groups reunify with professionals it doesnt inescapably recollect that thither is proactive booking. In some cases, participants acquiret fetch to the dialogue process. This could be triggered by operate file away reports about what mint express. As people do not get to see the cultivation they do not agnise what has been said by others or if each changes bring on been do. Consequently, they are averse to nurture an comment as they may tang their opinions are not taken into account (Course Reader, p. 30).A course of action could be to preserve reports and provide feedback to user groups. These reports should certify what changes wipe out been make in relation to the provision given up as well as an commentary to why changes contain not been made (Course Reader, p. 30).Benefits lodge provides exclusive advantages for managers, service users and thrillrs. Among the benefits for managers is the learnedness of smart familiarity and set about obtained from service users engagement. This familiarity could help managers to transform (or im ascend) the different methods for involving service users and carers in the person decision making. Moreover, this could prove to be secure for the get downment of an organisations complex body part when it comes to making changes or astir(p) operate that are being delivered. The benefits for service users and carers shtup be associated not single to an individual train but to a community level as well. That is to say, service users and carers posterior benefit on a ain level by change magnitude self-reliance as they get to feel their rights and how to access service. helper users crowd out also take part in planning care that fulfills their individual needs. Moreover, carers great power ameliorate their skills and gain commercial enterpris e satisfaction as they are delivering better tailor-made care. They preserve also develop the required skills, vex and intimacy regarding the richness of participation cashbox training (Course Reader, p. 44). induction health and social care go policies have changed through the years. present-day(prenominal) policies underline on the writ of execution of ordered and quality practices through service user involvement. Nevertheless, as at that place is no single users view managers face a serial of applicatory issues and challenges when implementing participation. To swindle these problems, managers moldiness regain methods to shell out these challenges effectively. By doing this, what is considered a challenge can be turned into a serial of benefits as successful user involvement proves to be a efficacious putz to diagnose issues, make changes and alter the service provided.ReferencesCollins speech (2011) onlinehttp//www.collinslanguage.com/results.aspx? mise e n scene=3& change by reversal= counterfeit&action= peg down&homonym=1& textbook=policy (Accessed third November, 2011) incision of health (2007) affable wellness chip 1983onlinehttp//www.dh.gov.uk/en/publicationsandstadistics/ ordinance/Actsandbills/DH_4002034 (Accessed seventeenth November, 2011) Stallard, D. (5th November, 2011, 1407) sidestep 1Forum body process, gathering pass to K303 2011. The unmannerly University (2003) K303, Managing guardianship in Context, DVD 1, lap 2 A meeting of Minds, Milton Keynes, The blossom forth University. The ease up University (2003) K303, Managing oversee in Context, Chapter 2, What service users say about services the implications for managers, social unit 2.1 first appearance, Milton Keynes, The brusk University. The throw University (2003) K303, Managing assist in Context, Chapter 2.